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Abstinence means total avoidance or non-use of substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs. All should abstain from tobacco and illicit drugs. Abstinence from alcohol is the behavioral goal for youths under age 21, for pregnant and nursing women, for those taking certain kinds of medications, and for persons who have a history of alcohol or drug-use problems.


Occurs when alcohol or drug use adversely affects the health of the user or when the use of a substance imposes social and personal costs.

Access to Services

The extent to which services are available for individuals who need care. Ease of access depends on several factors, including availability and location of appropriate care and services, transportation, hours of operation, and cultural factors, including languages and cultural appropriateness. For many populations access also includes insurance coverage.

Age of Onset

In substance abuse prevention, the age of first use (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).

Alcoholic Beverage

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) includes a set of questions asking about the recency and frequency of the consumption of alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, whiskey, brandy, and mixed drinks. A "drink" is defined as a can or bottle of beer, a glass of wine or a wine cooler, a shot of liquor, or a mixed drink with liquor in it. Times when the respondent only had a sip or two from a drink are not considered as consumption.

Alcohol and Drug Abuse Agency (State)

The State agency designated as the Single State Authority for the management of Federal Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment (SAPT) Block Grant funds, including the 20 percent required minimum set-aside for primary prevention.

Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Provider

An entity (agency or organization) whose principal objective is the prevention of substance use or abuse, or a program whose activities are related to education of and/or early intervention with populations at risk for substance abuse or dependency. A private provider is a for-profit or not-for-profit entity (agency or organization) that does not receive any SAPT Block Grant, State, or other public funds to provide services intended to prevent substance use or abuse. A public provider is a for-profit or not-for-profit entity (agency or organization) that receives SAPT Block Grant, State, or other public funds to provide services intended to prevent substance use or abuse.

Alcohol Related Fatal Crash

NHTSA defines a fatal crash as alcohol-related or alcohol-involved if at least one driver or non occupant (such as a pedestrian or pedal cyclist) involved in the crash is determined to have had a Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) of .01 gram per deciliter (g/dl)or higher. Thus, any fatality that occurs in an alcohol-related crash is considered an alcohol-related fatality.


Alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs

American Indian or Alaska Native

A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment. Overall rates of alcohol and other drug use are high among American Indians and Native Alaskans, but prevalence varies tremendously from tribe to tribe and by age and sex within tribes. Members of this group die more frequently than other ethnic/racial groups from suicide, homicide, and unintentional injuries related to alcohol, and from cirrhosis of the liver. American Indians/Native Alaskans have had their traditional way of life disrupted, and the subsequent feelings of powerlessness and hopelessness may be related to the high incidence of substance abuse problems. To help prevent substance abuse problems, this ethnic group can draw upon traditional sources of strength including the family, the tribe, and the land itself. Use of culturally appropriate strategies is important for the success of prevention programs.

Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PIs)

A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. This minority category includes more than 60 separate ethnic/racial groups and subgroups who are very diverse in terms of their histories and experiences in the U.S., languages and dialects, religions, cultures, and places of birth. They are likewise very different in the degree to which they are assimilated into the mainstream culture. Although substance abuse may not be as extensive in this group as it is in other population groups, there are significant differences in use among the different ethnic/racial groups and subgroups. Numerous prevention programs for Asians/Pacific Islanders have been developed during the past few years, reflecting the values and norms of that group and how substances are viewed and used within that culture. The National Asian Pacific American Families Against Substance Abuse (NAPAFASA) is an umbrella organization that has implemented several CSAP prevention efforts.

Average Daily Attendance

average resident attendance is defined by state law or regulations. In the absence of such laws and regulations, average daily attendance (ADA) should be the sum of the counts of resident students attending public school each day of the school year, divided by the number of days school was in session during the school year. Students who reside in one state and attend public school in another state should be counted in the state where they reside.



Observations or data about the target area and target population prior to treatment or intervention, which can be used as a basis for comparison once a program has been implemented.

Baseline Data

The initial information collected prior to the implementation of an intervention, against which outcomes can be compared at strategic points during and at completion of an intervention (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).


Bias is the extent to which a measurement, sampling, or analytic method systematically underestimates or overestimates the true value of something. Bias in questionnaire data can stem from a variety of other factors, including choice of words, sentence structure, and the sequence of questions. Bias is also created when a significant number of respondents do not answer a question. If those responding and those not responding have different characteristics, the responding cases may not be representative of the entire group.

Binge Use of Alcohol

Binge use of alcohol is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion (i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1 day in the past 30 days.

Black or African American

A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa.

Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)

The BAC is measured as a percentage by weight of alcohol in the blood (grams/deciliter). A positive BAC level (.01 g/dl and higher) indicates that alcohol was consumed by the person tested; a BAC level of .01 to.07 g/dl indicates that the person was impaired; a BAC level of .08 g/dl or more indicates that the person was intoxicated.



In the Achieving Outcomes Guide, the various types and levels of resources that an organization or collaborative has at its disposal to meet the implementation demands of specific interventions (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).

Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS)

The Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) is the Federal agency within the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) that leads national efforts to improve prevention and mental health treatment services for all Americans. CMHS pursues its mission by helping States improve and increase the quality and range of treatment, rehabilitation, and support services for people with mental health problems, their families, and communities.

Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)

Under the umbrella of SAMHSA, CSAP is the lead Federal agency for substance abuse prevention, and the Federal sponsor of this Decision Support System. CSAP makes grants to State and local governments and private organizations to engage in a wide variety of prevention activities. The mission of CSAP is to decrease substance use and abuse and related problems among the American public by bridging the gap between research and practice. CSAP fosters the development of comprehensive, culturally appropriate prevention policies and systems that are based on scientifically defensible principles and target both individuals and the environments in which they live.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT)

One of three SAMHSA centers, CSAT has programs designed to improve treatment services and make them more available to those in need. CSAT makes grants to States and local treatment centers to run substance abuse treatment programs and funds special treatment programs for incarcerated persons, pregnant and postpartum women, and other targeted groups.

Centers for the Application of Prevention Technology (CAPTs)

The primary mission of SAMHSA/CSAP's National Centers for the Application of Prevention Technologies (CAPT) is to bring research to practice by assisting States, jurisdiction, and community-based organizations in applying the latest evidence-based knowledge to their substance abuse prevention programs, practices, and policies. CAPTs form one of the cornerstones of SAMHSA/CSAP's efforts to bring effective substance abuse prevention to every community by moving science into services. Under the guidance of SAMHSA/CSAP, CAPTs work to expand the capacity of the substance abuse prevention field by providing state-of-the-science technical assistance and training to States and communities in planning, implementation, and evaluation of comprehensive prevention systems.

The overall CAPT program goals are to
  • Expand capacity, increase effectiveness and strengthen the performance and accountability of substance abuse prevention services at both the State and community levels.
  • Provide training and technical assistance to support effective, evidence-based substance abuse prevention programs, practices, and policies so that they can be applied successfully within the diverse contexts of life within communities, States, Tribes, and other U.S. jurisdictions.
  • Monitor the delivery and quality of services so that the impact of these services can be assessed in relation to States and communities reaching their goals.


One of the most heavily used addictive drugs in the U.S. Nicotine is highly addictive. The tar in cigarettes increases a smoker's risk of lung cancer, emphysema, and bronchial disorders. The carbon monoxide in smoke increases the chance of cardiovascular diseases. Secondhand smoke causes lung cancer in adults and greatly increases the risk of respiratory illnesses in children.


Individuals receiving interventions from the grantee.


A powerfully addictive and potentially lethal drug that can be snorted, smoked, or injected. Cocaine is a strong stimulant to the central nervous system; it produces an accelerated heart rate and constricts blood vessels, causing rises in temperature and blood pressure that can be accompanied by seizures, cardiac or respiratory arrest, or stroke. CSAP and other agencies have sponsored prevention programs specifically focused on cocaine.

Common Core of Data (CCD)

is a program of the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics that annually collects fiscal and non-fiscal data about all public schools, public school districts and state education agencies in the United States. The data include information that describes schools and school districts, including name, address, and phone number; descriptive information about students and staff, including demographics; and fiscal data, including revenues and current expenditures.


A group of individuals who share cultural and social experiences within a common geographic or political jurisdiction.

Community Anti-Drug Coalition of America (CADCA)

CADCA's mission is to build and strengthen the capacity of community coalitions to create safe, healthy and drug-free communities. The organization supports its members with technical assistance and training, public policy, media strategies and marketing programs, conferences and special events. With more than 5,000 community coalition members from across the country, CADCA is working with these coalitions to realize its vision of: An Organization of Excellence Building Drug-Free Communities. Community coalitions-more than any other entity-are poised to connect multiple sectors of the community, including businesses, parents, media, law enforcement, schools, faith organizations, health providers, social service agencies, and the government. By acting in concert through the coalition, all of the partners gain a more complete understanding of the community's problems. Together, the partners organize and develop plans and programs to coordinate their anti-drug efforts. The result is a comprehensive, community-wide approach to substance abuse and its related problems.

Community Indicators

A defined, measurable variable used to monitor the quality of a community.


Type of economic analysis of medical interventions in which the cost of treatment is compared with the cost of the outcome (benefit). In this analysis, results are valued monetarily.

Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA)

A systematic method for valuing over time the monetary costs and consequences of producing and consuming substance abuse program services. Results from a CBA are often provided in terms of a net present value figure, which shows the difference in inflation-adjusted, discounted costs and benefits of the program in today's dollars or in the dollars of a base year of interest. Results may also be shown in terms of an internal rate of return or a benefit-cost ratio. The data is used in determining the content of a benefit package.

Cost Effectiveness of Prevention

Data on cost effectiveness are particularly useful in persuading funding agencies to award money for prevention programs. CSAP and other agencies have sponsored research and designed methods of calculating the cost-effectiveness of prevention programs.

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA)

A systematic method for valuing over time the monetary costs and non-monetary consequences of producing and consuming substance abuse program services. Results from a CEA are often shown in terms of total costs and total levels of effectiveness (e.g., total quality adjusted life-years saved or total numbers of substance abuse cases avoided), or in terms of cost per unit of effectiveness. These data are used by employers to determine contents of a benefits package.


Cocaine (cocaine hydrochloride) that has been chemically modified so that it will become a gas vapor when heated at relatively low temperatures; also called "rock" cocaine.


Offenses known to law enforcement . Crime is a contributing factor or risk factor for substance abuse. Higher rates of substance abuse are found among both victims and perpetrators of crimes. Use of some substances by some people is defined as a crime in most jurisdictions (e.g., use of illegal drugs by anyone; use of alcohol and tobacco by underage persons). Certain national data systems regularly collect data on the association between crime and substance use/abuse. See definitions for offenses, property crime and violent crime


CSAP's Service Accountability and Monitoring System. This system was developed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)'s Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) for the use of prevention staff at community, state, and federal levels.

CSAP Project Officer

The CSAP staff person assigned to monitor grantee implementation.

Cultural Competence

The capacity of individuals to incorporate ethnic/cultural considerations into all aspects of their work relative to substance abuse prevention and reduction. Cultural competence is maximized with implementer/client involvement in all phases of the implementation process, as well as in the interpretation of outcomes (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).

Current Use

Any reported use of a specific drug in the past 30 days.



Information collected according to a methodology using specific research methods and instruments.

Data Analysis

The use of statistical and/or classification procedures that provide at least a preliminary understanding of the phenomena in question. In general terms, the assessment, interpretation, and/or appraisal of systematically collected information. (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).

Database Builder

Database Builder (DbB) was developed under the direction of the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) to enable States, substance abuse agencies, community-based service providers, and others to collect and report on individual-level survey data. DbB is a web-based evaluation tool that provides a structure and a framework for collecting both prevention process and prevention outcome data. The nature of the data to be collected is not hard-coded into the application; instead, a set of tools allow questionnaires to be built interactively, the set of respondents to be defined, and data to be collected. DbB further assists evaluation efforts by performing basic statistical reporting and providing detailed data downloads that allow analysts to perform more exhaustive statistical analysis.

Data Driven

A process whereby decisions are informed by and tested against systematically gathered and analyzed information (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).

Data Source

The entity (person or device) providing responses to measurement devices (see Respondent).


The characteristics of a human population, including sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), and so forth.

DCCC Call Center

The help desk that grantees should contact with any questions or problems. The DCCC Call Center will coordinate follow-up. The DCCC Call Center is available Monday through Friday from 9am to 6pm Eastern Standard time by telephone (240) 223-3002 or (877) 654-6740, or by e-mail,

Department of Education, Safe and Drug-Free Schools

The Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program is the Federal Government's primary vehicle for reducing drug, alcohol, and tobacco use, and violence, through education and prevention activities in our Nation's schools, so as to ensure a disciplined environment conducive to learning. These initiatives are designed to prevent violence in and around schools; to strengthen programs that prevent the illegal use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs; involve parents; and coordinate with related Federal, State and community efforts and resources. The Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program consists of two major programs: State Grants for Drug and Violence Prevention Programs, and National Programs. State Grants is a formula grant program that provides funds to State and local education agencies, as well as governors, for a wide range of school- and community-based education and prevention activities. National Programs carries out a variety of discretionary initiatives that respond to emerging needs. Among these are direct grants to school districts and communities with severe drug and violence problems, program evaluation, and information development and dissemination.


Domain is the category SAMHSA uses for National Outcome Measures (NOMs), which are designed to assess the impact of its major mental health, substance abuse treatment, and substance abuse prevention initiatives on the lives of the people it serves.

Domain (Prevention)

Prevention domains are spheres of influence in which prevention activities are conducted. Domains are usually considered to include individuals (self and peers), school, workplace, family, community, and society. The current domains for the SAMHSA's Prevention National Outcome Measures are: Abstinence; Employment/Education; Crime and Criminal Justice, Social Support/Social Connectedness; Access/Service Capacity; Retention; Cost Effectiveness; and Use of Evidence Based Practices.

Drug Free Communities Act (DFCA)

This Act serves as a catalyst for increased citizen participation in our efforts to reduce substance abuse among our youth and provide community anti-drug coalitions with much needed funds to carry out their important missions. The Act provides for grants to coalitions of representatives of youth, parents, businesses, the media, schools, and other organizations. The Office of National Drug Control Policy in carrying out the Program will provide technical assistance, training, data collection, and dissemination of information on state-of-the-art practices that have been shown to be effective in reducing substance abuse.

Drug Free Workplace Act

The 1988 Federal act that laid the groundwork for subsequent regulation of workplace drug testing.

Drug Testing in the Workplace

Because an estimated 70 percent of illicit drug users are employed, the workplace is an important environment for preventive efforts. One method is to conduct drug testing in the workplace, a controversial practice, but one that sends a strong message that the company supports non-use and encourages users to stop. Workplace drug testing is used for many reasons: pre-employment applicant testing, post-accident testing, scheduled testing (e.g., during routine physicals), random testing (used for jobs involving public safety/security), treatment follow-up, oversight of the maintenance of a drug-free state. For employers considering drug testing, legal counsel is advisable, because lawsuits have been filed against employers for invasion of privacy, wrongful discharge, defamation, and discrimination. However, statistics show that comprehensive workplace prevention programs, including drug testing, do reduce drug use problems and improve health, safety, and productivity. CSAP has a drug-free workplace program with a drug-testing component. (See CSAP's Workplace Resource Center.)



Slang term for methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a member of the amphetamine family. MDMA increases metabolism, produces euphoria and alertness, and gives the user a sense of increased energy. Higher doses or chronic use increases nervousness, irritability, and paranoia.


Measure of educational attainment.

Education (Prevention)

One of the six prevention strategies mandated by the SAPT Block Grant. This strategy involves two-way communication between an educator or facilitator and participants. The strategy focuses on improving critical life and social skills such as decision making, refusal, critical analysis of media messages, and improved judgment. Examples include classroom sessions for all ages, parenting and family management classes, and peer leader programs.


The ability to achieve stated goals or objectives, judged in terms of outcomes and impact.


Belonging to a common group-often linked by race, nationality, and language.


(From the Bureau of Labor Statistics) People are considered employed if they currently do any work at all for pay or profit. This includes all part-time and temporary work, as well as regular full-time year-round employment. Also, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asks respondents to report whether they worked in the week prior to the interview, and if not, whether they had a job despite not working in the past week. Employment is classified as Full-Time, Part-Time, Not Employed or Other. "Other" includes all other responses, including being a student, someone who is keeping house or caring for children full time, retired, disabled, or other miscellaneous work statuses.

Evidence Based Practices

See NREPP - National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices.

Evidence Based Programs

See NREPP - National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices.


Faith Community

A community that includes religious groups or churches.


Parents (or persons serving as parents) and children who are related either through biology or through assignment of guardianship, whether formally (by law) or informally, who are actively involved together in family life and who share a social network, material and emotional resources, and sources of support.


Adult and Youth Individual Dosage Form
Adult and Youth Group Dosage Form
Adult and Youth Baseline, Exit, and Follow-up Surveys
Strategic Prevention Framework (SPF) Project Abstraction Form



the behavioral, cultural, or psychological traits typically associated with one sex. Sex classification is either male or female.

General Population

Youth and adult citizens of a State rather than a specific group within the general population.


The entity receiving the HIV grant that is conducting interventions.



Substances that distort the perception of objective reality. The most well-known hallucinogens include phencyclidine (PCP, or angel dust); lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, or acid); mescaline; peyote; and psilocybin, or "magic" mushrooms. Reactions to hallucinogens include increased heart rate and blood pressure, sleeplessness and tremors, lack of coordination, incoherent speech, decreased awareness of touch and pain, convulsions, coma, heart and lung failure, a sense of distance and estrangement, depression, anxiety, paranoia, violent behavior, confusion, suspicion, loss of control, flashbacks, behavior similar to schizophrenic psychosis, and catatonic syndrome.


the concentrated resin from the flowering tops of the female hemp plant (Cannabis sativa) that is smoked, chewed, or drunk for its intoxicating effect. Hashish ("hash" for short), and hash oil are stronger forms of marijuana.

Healthy People 2010

The prevention agenda for the Nation. It is a statement of national health objectives designed to identify the most significant preventable threats to health and to establish national goals to reduce these threats. This agenda was established with a great deal of input from public and private organizations and will be carefully monitored throughout the present decade. A number of prevention goals have been established with respect to substance abuse.


Illegal Drugs

Refers to drug use. For example, an underage person who buys or possesses alcohol, a licit drug, is doing so illegally. But, it is illegal for anyone to buy or have marijuana, an illicit drug. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) obtains information on nine different categories of illegal drug use: marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, and nonmedical use of prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives. In these categories, hashish is included with marijuana, and crack is considered a form of cocaine. Several drugs are grouped under the hallucinogens category, including LSD, PCP, peyote, mescaline, mushrooms, and "Ecstasy" (MDMA). Inhalants include a variety of substances, such as amyl nitrite, cleaning fluids, gasoline, paint, and glue. The four categories of prescription-type drugs (pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives) cover numerous drugs available through prescriptions and sometimes illegally "on the street." Methamphetamine is included under stimulants. Over-the-counter drugs and legitimate uses of prescription drugs are not included.


Refers to drugs themselves. All illegal drugs are illicit, but alcohol and tobacco may be either licit or illicit, depending on whether they are used legally or illegally.

Individual Identifier

A 5-digit number that is assigned to each client or participant and used to track data collection activities for the client. Either the first digit of the 5-digit number is the letter "A" for an Adult participant (age 18 or older) or the letter "Y" for a Youth participant ages 12 to 17. The identifier is unique and confidential; only the grantees will record the client names. Grantees must maintain secure records of individual identifiers.


Specific services and actions that a grantee performs with clients or participants.


None available at this time


None available at this time


Lifetime Use

This indicates use of a specific drug at least once in the respondent's lifetime. This measure includes respondents who also reported last using the drug in the past 30 days or past 12 months.

Licit Drugs

Drugs that are legal to use, such as medicines and alcohol and tobacco. Note that it is possible to misuse a licit drug, as occurs with some prescription drugs and when tobacco and alcohol are used by underage persons.



Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mixture of dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of the hemp plant. All forms of marijuana are mind-altering. In other words, they change how the brain works. They all contain THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), the main active chemical in marijuana. Marijuana's effects on the user depend on its strength or potency, which is related to the amount of THC it contains. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug, especially among youth. Nearly one quarter of 8th graders and about half of all high school seniors have tried marijuana. Youthful attitudes toward and behavior concerning marijuana are important predictors of drug abuse trends for the Nation. Marijuana is a harmful drug, with more serious consequences now that the potency of available marijuana has increased enormously during the past decade. These consequences include chronic lung disease, impairment of memory, distortion of perception, hampering of judgment, and diminishing of motor skills. Long- and short-term development of children and adolescents may be affected by marijuana use. Observers of marijuana users have noted mood changes, apathy, loss of ambition, diminished ability to carry out plans, difficulty in concentrating, and decline in school or work performance. Driving under the influence of marijuana is dangerous.


An assessment item or ordered set of items. Measures are the tools used to obtain the information or evidence needed to answer a research question. They are similar to indicators, but more concrete and specific. Often an indicator will have multiple measures. Indicators are statements about what will be measured; measures answer the question exactly how will it be measured.

Measure and Instrument Repository

The Measure and Instrument Repository is the Evaluation module's storehouse of measures and instruments, which contains SAMHSA's NOMs for substance abuse prevention, substance abuse treatment, and mental health treatment.


National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors (NASADAD)

NASADAD is a national advocacy organization made up of directors of single State agencies for alcohol and drug abuse prevention and treatment.

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)

NCES, located within the U.S. Department of Education and the Institute of Education Sciences, is the primary federal entity for collecting and analyzing data related to education.

National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP)

The new National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) supports evidence-based decision making by providing users with a wide array of information across many dimensions. NREPP is designed to be used within a decision-support context that includes multiple, complementary perspectives including clinical, consumer, administrative, fiscal, organizational, and policy.

The main elements of NREPP include
  • Strength of Evidence Ratings
  • Readiness for Dissemination Ratings
  • Descriptive Dimensions



The Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program divides offenses into two groups, Part I and Part II crimes. Each month, contributing agencies submit information on the number of Part I offenses known to law enforcement; those offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means; and the age, sex, and race of persons arrested for each of the offenses. Contributors provide only arrest data for Part II offenses. The UCR Program collects data about Part I offenses in order to measure the level and scope of crime occurring throughout the Nation. The Program's founders chose these offenses because they are serious crimes, they occur with regularity in all areas of the country, and they are likely to be reported to police. The Part I offenses are: Criminal homicide; Forcible rape; Robbery; Aggravated assault; Burglary (breaking or entering); Larceny-theft (except motor vehicle theft); Motor vehicle theft; and Arson. The Part II offenses, for which only arrest data are collected, are: other assaults (simple); forgery and counterfeiting; fraud; embezzlement; stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing; vandalism; weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.; prostitution and commercialized vice; sex offenses (except forcible rape, prostitution, and commercialized vice; drug abuse violations; gambling; offenses against the family and children; driving under the influence; liquor laws; drunkenness; disorderly conduct; vagrancy; all other offenses; suspicion; curfew and loitering laws (persons underage 18); and runaways (persons under age 18).

Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP)

The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) is part of the Executive Office of the President, which oversees the total Federal drug control budget and sets the National Drug Control Strategy.



An individual formally enrolled or registered in a recurring prevention service. Demographic data (age, race/ethnicity, and gender) are collected for participants.

Past Month Use

This measure indicates use of a specific drug in the 30 days prior to the interview.



A term used to refer to information that can be expressed in numerical terms, counted, or compared on a scale (for example, the number of alcohol-related traffic accidents per month). In evaluation, quantitative data are used to measure changes in targeted outcomes (for example, substance use) and intervening variables (for example, attitudes toward substance use). The strength of quantitative data is their use in testing hypotheses and determining the strength and direction of effects.

Quantitative Data

Quantitative data is information that can be expressed in numerical terms, counted, or compared on a scale (for example, the number of 911 calls received in a month). Quantitative data might lead to the conclusion that there has been an increased number of arrests for selling drugs, that the quantity involved in sales is larger than in previous years, and that the sellers are younger. In evaluation studies, quantitative data includes measures that capture changes in targeted outcomes (e.g., substance use) and intervening variables (e.g., attitudes toward substance use). The strength of quantitative data is their use in testing hypotheses and determining the strength and direction of effects.



A socially defined population based on visible, genetically transmitted physical characteristics.

Risk Factor

Conditions for a group, individual, or defined geographic area that increase the likelihood of a substance use/abuse problem occurring (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).


Safe and Drug-Free Schools

Sample Size

Reflects the number of subjects from a population in your study. Determining the sample size involves using certain techniques and procedures in selecting elements of a population for study.

School Enrollment

The total number of students registered in a given school unit at a given time, generally in the fall of a year.

School Membership

The count of students on the current roll taken on the school day closest to October 1, by using either: the sum of original entries and re-entries minus total withdrawals; or the sum of the total present and the total absent.

School Survey

A process, most often using a specially designed instrument, to collect information relevant to school administration, student attitudes and behavior, and/or student performance (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).

Science-Based Prevention

"Science-based" refers to a process in which experts use commonly agreed-upon criteria for rating research interventions and come to a consensus that evaluation research findings are credible and can be substantiated. From this process, a set of effective principles, strategies, and model programs can be derived to guide prevention efforts. This process is sometimes referred to as research- or evidence-based. Experts analyze programs for credibility, utility, and generalizability. Credibility refers to the level of certainty concerning the cause-and-effect relationship of programs to outcomes. Utility refers to the extent to which the findings can be used to improve programming, explain program effects, or guide future studies. Generalizability refers to the extent to which findings from one site can be applied to other settings and populations. (For more information, see Central CAPT's Science-Based Prevention page.) Science-Based Program - In CSAP's terminology, a program that is theory-driven, has activities related to theory, and has been reasonably well implemented and well evaluated (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).

Secondary Prevention

Prevention activities designed to intervene when risk factors or early indicators of substance abuse, such as marital strife or poor school performance, are present. Also, prevention strategies designed to lower the rate of established cases of a disorder or illness in the population (prevalence).

Single State Agency (SSA)

Each State has a designated agency for substance abuse treatment and prevention that is the recipient of Federal block grant (see SAPT block grant, above) funds. These agencies may be free-standing entities or bureaus of the State's department of health and human services. They may also be part of the office of the governor.


All members of the community who have a vested interest (a stake) in the activities or outcomes of a substance abuse intervention (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).

State Code

The standard two-letter state abbreviation.

State Incentive Grants (SIGs)

CSAP has 37 State Incentive Grants (SIGs) in place with more than 600 subrecipients. Approximately 80 percent of these subrecipients are implementing science-based substance abuse prevention programs. Of these science-based programs, more than half are deemed Exemplary and Model Programs by CSAP. More than 2 million youth have already participated in nearly 300 SIG programs throughout the country. SIGs are the most direct mechanism for translating prevention knowledge into practice. The SIG program helps States and communities implement effective prevention program models. Eighty-five percent of program funds are channeled to local SIG subrecipients, which include community-based organizations, coalitions, partnerships, local governments, schools, and school districts.

State Survey Data

Includes the results from statewide administered surveys.

Statistical Power

The ability to accurately detect differences between groups or relationships between variables.

Statistical Significance

The strength of a particular relationship between variables. A relationship is said to be statistically significant when it occurs so frequently in the data that the relationship's existence is probably not attributable to chance.

Statistical Testing

A type of statistical procedure that is applied to data to determine whether the results are statistically significant (that is, the outcome is not likely to have resulted by chance alone.)

Strategic Planning

A disciplined and focused effort to produce decisions and activities to guide the successful implementation of an intervention (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)

SAMHSA is an operating division within the Department of Health and Human Services, and the umbrella agency housing the Centers for Mental Health Services (CMHS), Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), and Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT).

Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment (SAPT) Block Grant

This is Section 501 of the Public Health Services Act, which is now expired. Funding continues each year under a continuing resolution. The SAPT Block Grant is the primary funding vehicle for substance abuse prevention; at least 20 percent of all funds allocated to states must be spent on substance abuse primary prevention services as outlined in Block Grant legislation (Federal Register, 58:60, March 31, 1993, 17062 ff., 45 CFR Part 96).

Systematic Planning

Structured services that help States and communities identify prevention needs; assess existing prevention services; and set priorities and allocate prevention resources systematically, based on objective needs assessments. The specific plan is the product to be counted. Examples are agency/provider strategic plan, community team/organization plan, block grant plan, and state prevention plan.


Target Population

The group of persons (usually those at high risk) whom program interventions are designed to reach.

Technical Assistance (TA)

Services provided by professional prevention staff intended to provide technical guidance to prevention programs, community organizations, and individuals to conduct, strengthen, or enhance activities that will promote prevention. Services recorded under this service type code should be viable technical assistance that will lead to a final product. Examples are addressing cultural competence, developing an action plan/capacity building, ensuring quality assurance and improvement, conducting evaluations, adding programs and services, developing funding and resources, and providing professional expertise and organizational development.

Thirty Day Use (30 Day Use)

Any reported use of a specific drug in the past 30 days.

Training Services

Delivering structured substance abuse prevention training events intended to develop proficiency in prevention program design, development, and delivery skills. General public education or serving as a guest speaker at a training delivery is not included in this set of services and should be counted under Speaking Engagements under the Information Dissemination strategy. Examples of training services include developing prevention training curricula, conducting prevention training programs, training of trainers, and other formal skill-building activities.


Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program

The Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program is a nationwide, cooperative statistical effort of more than 17,000 city, university and college, county, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies voluntarily reporting data on crimes brought to their attention. During 2004, law enforcement agencies active in the UCR Program represented 94.2 percent of the total population. The coverage amounted to 95.4 percent of the United States population in Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), 86.9 percent of the population in cities outside metropolitan areas, and 89.2 percent in nonmetropolitan counties. Since 1930, the FBI has administered the UCR Program and continued to assess and monitor the nature and type of crime in the Nation. The Program's primary objective is to generate reliable information for use in law enforcement administration, operation, and management; however, its data have over the years become one of the country's leading social indicators. The American public looks to the Uniform Crime Reports for information on fluctuations in the level of crime, and criminologists, sociologists, legislators, municipal planners, the media, and other students of criminal justice use the statistics for varied research and planning purposes.

Universal Prevention

Prevention designed for everyone in the eligible population, both the general public and all members of specific eligible groups. Also, activities targeted to the general public or a whole population group that has not been identified on the basis of individual risk.



The extent to which a measure of a particular construct/concept actually measures what it purports to measure. For example, is "years of schooling" a valid measure of education? (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).


An act carried out with the intention or perceived intention of causing physical pain or injury to another person.

Violent Crime

is composed of four offenses: murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. According to the Uniform Crime Reporting Program's definition, violent crimes involve force or threat of force.



A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.

Workplace Prevention

Preliminary information indicates substantial gains resulting from prevention efforts in the workplace. For example, in an insurance-related industry, addition of substance abuse prevention materials to health promotion in the workplace improved attitudes and behavior related to substance use. Also, workers who participated in SA interventions were more likely to access healthcare for SA problems. Employee injury rates can be reduced when substance abuse prevention initiatives are introduced.


None available at this time



Children under age 18 who are not otherwise counted under one of the school grade categories. Examples are youth in recreation programs (camps, summer programs), youth in employment programs and youth in clubs or recreation centers.


None available at this time