This page provides a comprehensive listing of Prevention Management Reporting and Training System terms for your convenience. If you cannot find a term you're looking for Contact Us.
Abstinence means total avoidance or non-use of substances such as alcohol, tobacco,
and illicit drugs. All should abstain from tobacco and illicit drugs. Abstinence
from alcohol is the behavioral goal for youths under age 21, for pregnant and nursing
women, for those taking certain kinds of medications, and for persons who have a
history of alcohol or drug-use problems.
Occurs when alcohol or drug use adversely affects the health of the user or when
the use of a substance imposes social and personal costs.
Access to Services
The extent to which services are available for individuals who need care. Ease of
access depends on several factors, including availability and location of appropriate
care and services, transportation, hours of operation, and cultural factors, including
languages and cultural appropriateness. For many populations access also includes
Age of Onset
In substance abuse prevention, the age of first use (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).
The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) includes a set of questions asking
about the recency and frequency of the consumption of alcoholic beverages, such
as beer, wine, whiskey, brandy, and mixed drinks. A "drink" is defined as a can
or bottle of beer, a glass of wine or a wine cooler, a shot of liquor, or a mixed
drink with liquor in it. Times when the respondent only had a sip or two from a
drink are not considered as consumption.
Alcohol and Drug Abuse Agency (State)
The State agency designated as the Single State Authority for the management of
Federal Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment (SAPT) Block Grant funds, including
the 20 percent required minimum set-aside for primary prevention.
Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Provider
An entity (agency or organization) whose principal objective is the prevention of
substance use or abuse, or a program whose activities are related to education of
and/or early intervention with populations at risk for substance abuse or dependency.
A private provider is a for-profit or not-for-profit entity (agency or organization)
that does not receive any SAPT Block Grant, State, or other public funds to provide
services intended to prevent substance use or abuse. A public provider is a for-profit
or not-for-profit entity (agency or organization) that receives SAPT Block Grant,
State, or other public funds to provide services intended to prevent substance use
Alcohol Related Fatal Crash
NHTSA defines a fatal crash as alcohol-related or alcohol-involved if at least one
driver or non occupant (such as a pedestrian or pedal cyclist) involved in the crash
is determined to have had a Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) of .01 gram per deciliter
(g/dl)or higher. Thus, any fatality that occurs in an alcohol-related crash is considered
an alcohol-related fatality.
Alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs
American Indian or Alaska Native
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America
(including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment.
Overall rates of alcohol and other drug use are high among American Indians and
Native Alaskans, but prevalence varies tremendously from tribe to tribe and by age
and sex within tribes. Members of this group die more frequently than other ethnic/racial
groups from suicide, homicide, and unintentional injuries related to alcohol, and
from cirrhosis of the liver. American Indians/Native Alaskans have had their traditional
way of life disrupted, and the subsequent feelings of powerlessness and hopelessness
may be related to the high incidence of substance abuse problems. To help prevent
substance abuse problems, this ethnic group can draw upon traditional sources of
strength including the family, the tribe, and the land itself. Use of culturally
appropriate strategies is important for the success of prevention programs.
Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PIs)
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast
Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India,
Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.
This minority category includes more than 60 separate ethnic/racial groups and subgroups
who are very diverse in terms of their histories and experiences in the U.S., languages
and dialects, religions, cultures, and places of birth. They are likewise very different
in the degree to which they are assimilated into the mainstream culture. Although
substance abuse may not be as extensive in this group as it is in other population
groups, there are significant differences in use among the different ethnic/racial
groups and subgroups. Numerous prevention programs for Asians/Pacific Islanders
have been developed during the past few years, reflecting the values and norms of
that group and how substances are viewed and used within that culture. The National
Asian Pacific American Families Against Substance Abuse (NAPAFASA) is an umbrella
organization that has implemented several CSAP prevention efforts.
Average Daily Attendance
average resident attendance is defined by state law or regulations. In the absence
of such laws and regulations, average daily attendance (ADA) should be the sum of
the counts of resident students attending public school each day of the school year,
divided by the number of days school was in session during the school year. Students
who reside in one state and attend public school in another state should be counted
in the state where they reside.
Observations or data about the target area and target population prior to treatment
or intervention, which can be used as a basis for comparison once a program has
The initial information collected prior to the implementation of an intervention,
against which outcomes can be compared at strategic points during and at completion
of an intervention (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).
Bias is the extent to which a measurement, sampling, or analytic method systematically
underestimates or overestimates the true value of something. Bias in questionnaire
data can stem from a variety of other factors, including choice of words, sentence
structure, and the sequence of questions. Bias is also created when a significant
number of respondents do not answer a question. If those responding and those not
responding have different characteristics, the responding cases may not be representative
of the entire group.
Binge Use of Alcohol
Binge use of alcohol is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion
(i.e., at the same time or within a couple of hours of each other) on at least 1
day in the past 30 days.
Black or African American
A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa.
Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)
The BAC is measured as a percentage by weight of alcohol in the blood (grams/deciliter).
A positive BAC level (.01 g/dl and higher) indicates that alcohol was consumed by
the person tested; a BAC level of .01 to.07 g/dl indicates that the person was impaired;
a BAC level of .08 g/dl or more indicates that the person was intoxicated.
In the Achieving Outcomes Guide, the various types and levels of resources that
an organization or collaborative has at its disposal to meet the implementation
demands of specific interventions (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).
Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS)
The Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) is the Federal agency within the U.S.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) that leads national
efforts to improve prevention and mental health treatment services for all Americans.
CMHS pursues its mission by helping States improve and increase the quality and
range of treatment, rehabilitation, and support services for people with mental
health problems, their families, and communities.
Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)
Under the umbrella of SAMHSA, CSAP is the lead Federal agency for substance abuse
prevention, and the Federal sponsor of this Decision Support System. CSAP makes
grants to State and local governments and private organizations to engage in a wide
variety of prevention activities. The mission of CSAP is to decrease substance use
and abuse and related problems among the American public by bridging the gap between
research and practice. CSAP fosters the development of comprehensive, culturally
appropriate prevention policies and systems that are based on scientifically defensible
principles and target both individuals and the environments in which they live.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT)
One of three SAMHSA centers, CSAT has programs designed to improve treatment services
and make them more available to those in need. CSAT makes grants to States and local
treatment centers to run substance abuse treatment programs and funds special treatment
programs for incarcerated persons, pregnant and postpartum women, and other targeted
Centers for the Application of Prevention Technology (CAPTs)
The primary mission of SAMHSA/CSAP's National Centers for the Application of Prevention
Technologies (CAPT) is to bring research to practice by assisting States, jurisdiction,
and community-based organizations in applying the latest evidence-based knowledge
to their substance abuse prevention programs, practices, and policies. CAPTs form
one of the cornerstones of SAMHSA/CSAP's efforts to bring effective substance abuse
prevention to every community by moving science into services. Under the guidance
of SAMHSA/CSAP, CAPTs work to expand the capacity of the substance abuse prevention
field by providing state-of-the-science technical assistance and training to States
and communities in planning, implementation, and evaluation of comprehensive prevention
The overall CAPT program goals are to
- Expand capacity, increase effectiveness and strengthen the performance and accountability
of substance abuse prevention services at both the State and community levels.
- Provide training and technical assistance to support effective, evidence-based substance
abuse prevention programs, practices, and policies so that they can be applied successfully
within the diverse contexts of life within communities, States, Tribes, and other
- Monitor the delivery and quality of services so that the impact of these services
can be assessed in relation to States and communities reaching their goals.
One of the most heavily used addictive drugs in the U.S. Nicotine is highly addictive.
The tar in cigarettes increases a smoker's risk of lung cancer, emphysema, and bronchial
disorders. The carbon monoxide in smoke increases the chance of cardiovascular diseases.
Secondhand smoke causes lung cancer in adults and greatly increases the risk of
respiratory illnesses in children.
Individuals receiving interventions from the grantee.
A powerfully addictive and potentially lethal drug that can be snorted, smoked,
or injected. Cocaine is a strong stimulant to the central nervous system; it produces
an accelerated heart rate and constricts blood vessels, causing rises in temperature
and blood pressure that can be accompanied by seizures, cardiac or respiratory arrest,
or stroke. CSAP and other agencies have sponsored prevention programs specifically
focused on cocaine.
Common Core of Data (CCD)
is a program of the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education
Statistics that annually collects fiscal and non-fiscal data about all public schools,
public school districts and state education agencies in the United States. The data
include information that describes schools and school districts, including name,
address, and phone number; descriptive information about students and staff, including
demographics; and fiscal data, including revenues and current expenditures.
A group of individuals who share cultural and social experiences within a common
geographic or political jurisdiction.
Community Anti-Drug Coalition of America (CADCA)
CADCA's mission is to build and strengthen the capacity of community coalitions
to create safe, healthy and drug-free communities. The organization supports its
members with technical assistance and training, public policy, media strategies
and marketing programs, conferences and special events. With more than 5,000 community
coalition members from across the country, CADCA is working with these coalitions
to realize its vision of: An Organization of Excellence Building Drug-Free Communities.
Community coalitions-more than any other entity-are poised to connect multiple sectors
of the community, including businesses, parents, media, law enforcement, schools,
faith organizations, health providers, social service agencies, and the government.
By acting in concert through the coalition, all of the partners gain a more complete
understanding of the community's problems. Together, the partners organize and develop
plans and programs to coordinate their anti-drug efforts. The result is a comprehensive,
community-wide approach to substance abuse and its related problems.
A defined, measurable variable used to monitor the quality of a community.
Type of economic analysis of medical interventions in which the cost of treatment
is compared with the cost of the outcome (benefit). In this analysis, results are
Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA)
A systematic method for valuing over time the monetary costs and consequences of
producing and consuming substance abuse program services. Results from a CBA are
often provided in terms of a net present value figure, which shows the difference
in inflation-adjusted, discounted costs and benefits of the program in today's dollars
or in the dollars of a base year of interest. Results may also be shown in terms
of an internal rate of return or a benefit-cost ratio. The data is used in determining
the content of a benefit package.
Cost Effectiveness of Prevention
Data on cost effectiveness are particularly useful in persuading funding agencies
to award money for prevention programs. CSAP and other agencies have sponsored research
and designed methods of calculating the cost-effectiveness of prevention programs.
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA)
A systematic method for valuing over time the monetary costs and non-monetary consequences
of producing and consuming substance abuse program services. Results from a CEA
are often shown in terms of total costs and total levels of effectiveness (e.g.,
total quality adjusted life-years saved or total numbers of substance abuse cases
avoided), or in terms of cost per unit of effectiveness. These data are used by
employers to determine contents of a benefits package.
Cocaine (cocaine hydrochloride) that has been chemically modified so that it will
become a gas vapor when heated at relatively low temperatures; also called "rock"
Offenses known to law enforcement . Crime is a contributing factor or risk factor
for substance abuse. Higher rates of substance abuse are found among both victims
and perpetrators of crimes. Use of some substances by some people is defined as
a crime in most jurisdictions (e.g., use of illegal drugs by anyone; use of alcohol
and tobacco by underage persons). Certain national data systems regularly collect
data on the association between crime and substance use/abuse. See definitions for
offenses, property crime and violent crime
CSAP's Service Accountability and Monitoring System. This system was developed by
the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)'s Center
for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) for the use of prevention staff at community,
state, and federal levels.
CSAP Project Officer
The CSAP staff person assigned to monitor grantee implementation.
The capacity of individuals to incorporate ethnic/cultural considerations into all
aspects of their work relative to substance abuse prevention and reduction. Cultural
competence is maximized with implementer/client involvement in all phases of the
implementation process, as well as in the interpretation of outcomes (Achieving
Any reported use of a specific drug in the past 30 days.
Information collected according to a methodology using specific research methods
The use of statistical and/or classification procedures that provide at least a
preliminary understanding of the phenomena in question. In general terms, the assessment,
interpretation, and/or appraisal of systematically collected information. (Achieving
Database Builder (DbB) was developed under the direction of the Center for Substance
Abuse Prevention (CSAP) to enable States, substance abuse agencies, community-based
service providers, and others to collect and report on individual-level survey data.
DbB is a web-based evaluation tool that provides a structure and a framework for
collecting both prevention process and prevention outcome data. The nature of the
data to be collected is not hard-coded into the application; instead, a set of tools
allow questionnaires to be built interactively, the set of respondents to be defined,
and data to be collected. DbB further assists evaluation efforts by performing basic
statistical reporting and providing detailed data downloads that allow analysts
to perform more exhaustive statistical analysis.
A process whereby decisions are informed by and tested against systematically gathered
and analyzed information (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).
The entity (person or device) providing responses to measurement devices (see Respondent).
The characteristics of a human population, including sex, age, socioeconomic status
(SES), and so forth.
DCCC Call Center
The help desk that grantees should contact with any questions or problems. The DCCC
Call Center will coordinate follow-up. The DCCC Call Center is available Monday
through Friday from 9am to 6pm Eastern Standard time by telephone (240) 223-3002
or (877) 654-6740, or by e-mail, email@example.com
Department of Education, Safe and Drug-Free Schools
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program is the Federal Government's primary vehicle
for reducing drug, alcohol, and tobacco use, and violence, through education and
prevention activities in our Nation's schools, so as to ensure a disciplined environment
conducive to learning. These initiatives are designed to prevent violence in and
around schools; to strengthen programs that prevent the illegal use of alcohol,
tobacco, and drugs; involve parents; and coordinate with related Federal, State
and community efforts and resources. The Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program consists
of two major programs: State Grants for Drug and Violence Prevention Programs, and
National Programs. State Grants is a formula grant program that provides funds to
State and local education agencies, as well as governors, for a wide range of school-
and community-based education and prevention activities. National Programs carries
out a variety of discretionary initiatives that respond to emerging needs. Among
these are direct grants to school districts and communities with severe drug and
violence problems, program evaluation, and information development and dissemination.
Domain is the category SAMHSA uses for National Outcome Measures (NOMs), which are
designed to assess the impact of its major mental health, substance abuse treatment,
and substance abuse prevention initiatives on the lives of the people it serves.
Prevention domains are spheres of influence in which prevention activities are conducted.
Domains are usually considered to include individuals (self and peers), school,
workplace, family, community, and society. The current domains for the SAMHSA's
Prevention National Outcome Measures are: Abstinence; Employment/Education; Crime
and Criminal Justice, Social Support/Social Connectedness; Access/Service Capacity;
Retention; Cost Effectiveness; and Use of Evidence Based Practices.
Drug Free Communities Act (DFCA)
This Act serves as a catalyst for increased citizen participation in our efforts
to reduce substance abuse among our youth and provide community anti-drug coalitions
with much needed funds to carry out their important missions. The Act provides for
grants to coalitions of representatives of youth, parents, businesses, the media,
schools, and other organizations. The Office of National Drug Control Policy in
carrying out the Program will provide technical assistance, training, data collection,
and dissemination of information on state-of-the-art practices that have been shown
to be effective in reducing substance abuse.
Drug Free Workplace Act
The 1988 Federal act that laid the groundwork for subsequent regulation of workplace
Drug Testing in the Workplace
Because an estimated 70 percent of illicit drug users are employed, the workplace
is an important environment for preventive efforts. One method is to conduct drug
testing in the workplace, a controversial practice, but one that sends a strong
message that the company supports non-use and encourages users to stop. Workplace
drug testing is used for many reasons: pre-employment applicant testing, post-accident
testing, scheduled testing (e.g., during routine physicals), random testing (used
for jobs involving public safety/security), treatment follow-up, oversight of the
maintenance of a drug-free state. For employers considering drug testing, legal
counsel is advisable, because lawsuits have been filed against employers for invasion
of privacy, wrongful discharge, defamation, and discrimination. However, statistics
show that comprehensive workplace prevention programs, including drug testing, do
reduce drug use problems and improve health, safety, and productivity. CSAP has
a drug-free workplace program with a drug-testing component. (See CSAP's Workplace
Slang term for methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a member of the amphetamine
family. MDMA increases metabolism, produces euphoria and alertness, and gives the
user a sense of increased energy. Higher doses or chronic use increases nervousness,
irritability, and paranoia.
Measure of educational attainment.
One of the six prevention strategies mandated by the SAPT Block Grant. This strategy
involves two-way communication between an educator or facilitator and participants.
The strategy focuses on improving critical life and social skills such as decision
making, refusal, critical analysis of media messages, and improved judgment. Examples
include classroom sessions for all ages, parenting and family management classes,
and peer leader programs.
The ability to achieve stated goals or objectives, judged in terms of outcomes and
Belonging to a common group-often linked by race, nationality, and language.
(From the Bureau of Labor Statistics) People are considered employed if they currently
do any work at all for pay or profit. This includes all part-time and temporary
work, as well as regular full-time year-round employment. Also, the National Survey
on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asks respondents to report whether they worked in
the week prior to the interview, and if not, whether they had a job despite not
working in the past week. Employment is classified as Full-Time, Part-Time, Not
Employed or Other. "Other" includes all other responses, including being a student,
someone who is keeping house or caring for children full time, retired, disabled,
or other miscellaneous work statuses.
Evidence Based Practices
See NREPP - National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices.
Evidence Based Programs
See NREPP - National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices.
A community that includes religious groups or churches.
Parents (or persons serving as parents) and children who are related either through
biology or through assignment of guardianship, whether formally (by law) or informally,
who are actively involved together in family life and who share a social network,
material and emotional resources, and sources of support.
Adult and Youth Individual Dosage Form
Adult and Youth Group Dosage Form
Adult and Youth Baseline, Exit, and Follow-up Surveys
Strategic Prevention Framework (SPF) Project Abstraction Form
the behavioral, cultural, or psychological traits typically associated with one
sex. Sex classification is either male or female.
Youth and adult citizens of a State rather than a specific group within the general
The entity receiving the HIV grant that is conducting interventions.
Substances that distort the perception of objective reality. The most well-known
hallucinogens include phencyclidine (PCP, or angel dust); lysergic acid diethylamide
(LSD, or acid); mescaline; peyote; and psilocybin, or "magic" mushrooms. Reactions
to hallucinogens include increased heart rate and blood pressure, sleeplessness
and tremors, lack of coordination, incoherent speech, decreased awareness of touch
and pain, convulsions, coma, heart and lung failure, a sense of distance and estrangement,
depression, anxiety, paranoia, violent behavior, confusion, suspicion, loss of control,
flashbacks, behavior similar to schizophrenic psychosis, and catatonic syndrome.
the concentrated resin from the flowering tops of the female hemp plant (Cannabis
sativa) that is smoked, chewed, or drunk for its intoxicating effect. Hashish ("hash"
for short), and hash oil are stronger forms of marijuana.
Healthy People 2010
The prevention agenda for the Nation. It is a statement of national health objectives
designed to identify the most significant preventable threats to health and to establish
national goals to reduce these threats. This agenda was established with a great
deal of input from public and private organizations and will be carefully monitored
throughout the present decade. A number of prevention goals have been established
with respect to substance abuse.
Refers to drug use. For example, an underage person who buys or possesses alcohol,
a licit drug, is doing so illegally. But, it is illegal for anyone to buy or have
marijuana, an illicit drug. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) obtains
information on nine different categories of illegal drug use: marijuana, cocaine,
heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, and nonmedical use of prescription-type pain relievers,
tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives. In these categories, hashish is included
with marijuana, and crack is considered a form of cocaine. Several drugs are grouped
under the hallucinogens category, including LSD, PCP, peyote, mescaline, mushrooms,
and "Ecstasy" (MDMA). Inhalants include a variety of substances, such as amyl nitrite,
cleaning fluids, gasoline, paint, and glue. The four categories of prescription-type
drugs (pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives) cover numerous
drugs available through prescriptions and sometimes illegally "on the street." Methamphetamine
is included under stimulants. Over-the-counter drugs and legitimate uses of prescription
drugs are not included.
Refers to drugs themselves. All illegal drugs are illicit, but alcohol and tobacco
may be either licit or illicit, depending on whether they are used legally or illegally.
A 5-digit number that is assigned to each client or participant and used to track
data collection activities for the client. Either the first digit of the 5-digit
number is the letter "A" for an Adult participant (age 18 or older) or the letter
"Y" for a Youth participant ages 12 to 17. The identifier is unique and confidential;
only the grantees will record the client names. Grantees must maintain secure records
of individual identifiers.
Specific services and actions that a grantee performs with clients or participants.
None available at this time
None available at this time
This indicates use of a specific drug at least once in the respondent's lifetime.
This measure includes respondents who also reported last using the drug in the past
30 days or past 12 months.
Drugs that are legal to use, such as medicines and alcohol and tobacco. Note that
it is possible to misuse a licit drug, as occurs with some prescription drugs and
when tobacco and alcohol are used by underage persons.
Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mixture of dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds,
and flowers of the hemp plant. All forms of marijuana are mind-altering. In other
words, they change how the brain works. They all contain THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol),
the main active chemical in marijuana. Marijuana's effects on the user depend on
its strength or potency, which is related to the amount of THC it contains. Marijuana
is the most commonly used illicit drug, especially among youth. Nearly one quarter
of 8th graders and about half of all high school seniors have tried marijuana. Youthful
attitudes toward and behavior concerning marijuana are important predictors of drug
abuse trends for the Nation. Marijuana is a harmful drug, with more serious consequences
now that the potency of available marijuana has increased enormously during the
past decade. These consequences include chronic lung disease, impairment of memory,
distortion of perception, hampering of judgment, and diminishing of motor skills.
Long- and short-term development of children and adolescents may be affected by
marijuana use. Observers of marijuana users have noted mood changes, apathy, loss
of ambition, diminished ability to carry out plans, difficulty in concentrating,
and decline in school or work performance. Driving under the influence of marijuana
An assessment item or ordered set of items. Measures are the tools used to obtain
the information or evidence needed to answer a research question. They are similar
to indicators, but more concrete and specific. Often an indicator will have multiple
measures. Indicators are statements about what will be measured; measures answer
the question exactly how will it be measured.
Measure and Instrument Repository
The Measure and Instrument Repository is the Evaluation module's storehouse of measures
and instruments, which contains SAMHSA's NOMs for substance abuse prevention, substance
abuse treatment, and mental health treatment.
National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors (NASADAD)
NASADAD is a national advocacy organization made up of directors of single State
agencies for alcohol and drug abuse prevention and treatment.
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
NCES, located within the U.S. Department of Education and the Institute of Education
Sciences, is the primary federal entity for collecting and analyzing data related
National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices (NREPP)
The new National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) supports
evidence-based decision making by providing users with a wide array of information
across many dimensions. NREPP is designed to be used within a decision-support context
that includes multiple, complementary perspectives including clinical, consumer,
administrative, fiscal, organizational, and policy.
The main elements of NREPP include
- Strength of Evidence Ratings
- Readiness for Dissemination Ratings
- Descriptive Dimensions
The Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program divides offenses into two groups, Part
I and Part II crimes. Each month, contributing agencies submit information on the
number of Part I offenses known to law enforcement; those offenses cleared by arrest
or exceptional means; and the age, sex, and race of persons arrested for each of
the offenses. Contributors provide only arrest data for Part II offenses. The UCR
Program collects data about Part I offenses in order to measure the level and scope
of crime occurring throughout the Nation. The Program's founders chose these offenses
because they are serious crimes, they occur with regularity in all areas of the
country, and they are likely to be reported to police. The Part I offenses are:
Criminal homicide; Forcible rape; Robbery; Aggravated assault; Burglary (breaking
or entering); Larceny-theft (except motor vehicle theft); Motor vehicle theft; and
Arson. The Part II offenses, for which only arrest data are collected, are: other
assaults (simple); forgery and counterfeiting; fraud; embezzlement; stolen property;
buying, receiving, possessing; vandalism; weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.; prostitution
and commercialized vice; sex offenses (except forcible rape, prostitution, and commercialized
vice; drug abuse violations; gambling; offenses against the family and children;
driving under the influence; liquor laws; drunkenness; disorderly conduct; vagrancy;
all other offenses; suspicion; curfew and loitering laws (persons underage 18);
and runaways (persons under age 18).
Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP)
The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) is part of the Executive Office
of the President, which oversees the total Federal drug control budget and sets
the National Drug Control Strategy.
An individual formally enrolled or registered in a recurring prevention service.
Demographic data (age, race/ethnicity, and gender) are collected for participants.
Past Month Use
This measure indicates use of a specific drug in the 30 days prior to the interview.
A term used to refer to information that can be expressed in numerical terms, counted,
or compared on a scale (for example, the number of alcohol-related traffic accidents
per month). In evaluation, quantitative data are used to measure changes in targeted
outcomes (for example, substance use) and intervening variables (for example, attitudes
toward substance use). The strength of quantitative data is their use in testing
hypotheses and determining the strength and direction of effects.
Quantitative data is information that can be expressed in numerical terms, counted,
or compared on a scale (for example, the number of 911 calls received in a month).
Quantitative data might lead to the conclusion that there has been an increased
number of arrests for selling drugs, that the quantity involved in sales is larger
than in previous years, and that the sellers are younger. In evaluation studies,
quantitative data includes measures that capture changes in targeted outcomes (e.g.,
substance use) and intervening variables (e.g., attitudes toward substance use).
The strength of quantitative data is their use in testing hypotheses and determining
the strength and direction of effects.
A socially defined population based on visible, genetically transmitted physical
Conditions for a group, individual, or defined geographic area that increase the
likelihood of a substance use/abuse problem occurring (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).
Safe and Drug-Free Schools
Reflects the number of subjects from a population in your study. Determining the
sample size involves using certain techniques and procedures in selecting elements
of a population for study.
The total number of students registered in a given school unit at a given time,
generally in the fall of a year.
The count of students on the current roll taken on the school day closest to October
1, by using either: the sum of original entries and re-entries minus total withdrawals;
or the sum of the total present and the total absent.
A process, most often using a specially designed instrument, to collect information
relevant to school administration, student attitudes and behavior, and/or student
performance (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).
"Science-based" refers to a process in which experts use commonly agreed-upon criteria
for rating research interventions and come to a consensus that evaluation research
findings are credible and can be substantiated. From this process, a set of effective
principles, strategies, and model programs can be derived to guide prevention efforts.
This process is sometimes referred to as research- or evidence-based. Experts analyze
programs for credibility, utility, and generalizability. Credibility refers to the
level of certainty concerning the cause-and-effect relationship of programs to outcomes.
Utility refers to the extent to which the findings can be used to improve programming,
explain program effects, or guide future studies. Generalizability refers to the
extent to which findings from one site can be applied to other settings and populations.
(For more information, see Central CAPT's Science-Based Prevention page.) Science-Based
Program - In CSAP's terminology, a program that is theory-driven, has activities
related to theory, and has been reasonably well implemented and well evaluated (Achieving
Prevention activities designed to intervene when risk factors or early indicators
of substance abuse, such as marital strife or poor school performance, are present.
Also, prevention strategies designed to lower the rate of established cases of a
disorder or illness in the population (prevalence).
Single State Agency (SSA)
Each State has a designated agency for substance abuse treatment and prevention
that is the recipient of Federal block grant (see SAPT block grant, above) funds.
These agencies may be free-standing entities or bureaus of the State's department
of health and human services. They may also be part of the office of the governor.
All members of the community who have a vested interest (a stake) in the activities
or outcomes of a substance abuse intervention (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).
The standard two-letter state abbreviation.
State Incentive Grants (SIGs)
CSAP has 37 State Incentive Grants (SIGs) in place with more than 600 subrecipients.
Approximately 80 percent of these subrecipients are implementing science-based substance
abuse prevention programs. Of these science-based programs, more than half are deemed
Exemplary and Model Programs by CSAP. More than 2 million youth have already participated
in nearly 300 SIG programs throughout the country. SIGs are the most direct mechanism
for translating prevention knowledge into practice. The SIG program helps States
and communities implement effective prevention program models. Eighty-five percent
of program funds are channeled to local SIG subrecipients, which include community-based
organizations, coalitions, partnerships, local governments, schools, and school
State Survey Data
Includes the results from statewide administered surveys.
The ability to accurately detect differences between groups or relationships between
The strength of a particular relationship between variables. A relationship is said
to be statistically significant when it occurs so frequently in the data that the
relationship's existence is probably not attributable to chance.
A type of statistical procedure that is applied to data to determine whether the
results are statistically significant (that is, the outcome is not likely to have
resulted by chance alone.)
A disciplined and focused effort to produce decisions and activities to guide the
successful implementation of an intervention (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
SAMHSA is an operating division within the Department of Health and Human Services,
and the umbrella agency housing the Centers for Mental Health Services (CMHS), Substance
Abuse Prevention (CSAP), and Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT).
Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment (SAPT) Block Grant
This is Section 501 of the Public Health Services Act, which is now expired. Funding
continues each year under a continuing resolution. The SAPT Block Grant is the primary
funding vehicle for substance abuse prevention; at least 20 percent of all funds
allocated to states must be spent on substance abuse primary prevention services
as outlined in Block Grant legislation (Federal Register, 58:60, March 31, 1993,
17062 ff., 45 CFR Part 96).
Structured services that help States and communities identify prevention needs;
assess existing prevention services; and set priorities and allocate prevention
resources systematically, based on objective needs assessments. The specific plan
is the product to be counted. Examples are agency/provider strategic plan, community
team/organization plan, block grant plan, and state prevention plan.
The group of persons (usually those at high risk) whom program interventions are
designed to reach.
Technical Assistance (TA)
Services provided by professional prevention staff intended to provide technical
guidance to prevention programs, community organizations, and individuals to conduct,
strengthen, or enhance activities that will promote prevention. Services recorded
under this service type code should be viable technical assistance that will lead
to a final product. Examples are addressing cultural competence, developing an action
plan/capacity building, ensuring quality assurance and improvement, conducting evaluations,
adding programs and services, developing funding and resources, and providing professional
expertise and organizational development.
Thirty Day Use (30 Day Use)
Any reported use of a specific drug in the past 30 days.
Delivering structured substance abuse prevention training events intended to develop
proficiency in prevention program design, development, and delivery skills. General
public education or serving as a guest speaker at a training delivery is not included
in this set of services and should be counted under Speaking Engagements under the
Information Dissemination strategy. Examples of training services include developing
prevention training curricula, conducting prevention training programs, training
of trainers, and other formal skill-building activities.
Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program
The Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program is a nationwide, cooperative statistical
effort of more than 17,000 city, university and college, county, state, tribal,
and federal law enforcement agencies voluntarily reporting data on crimes brought
to their attention. During 2004, law enforcement agencies active in the UCR Program
represented 94.2 percent of the total population. The coverage amounted to 95.4
percent of the United States population in Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs),
86.9 percent of the population in cities outside metropolitan areas, and 89.2 percent
in nonmetropolitan counties. Since 1930, the FBI has administered the UCR Program
and continued to assess and monitor the nature and type of crime in the Nation.
The Program's primary objective is to generate reliable information for use in law
enforcement administration, operation, and management; however, its data have over
the years become one of the country's leading social indicators. The American public
looks to the Uniform Crime Reports for information on fluctuations in the level
of crime, and criminologists, sociologists, legislators, municipal planners, the
media, and other students of criminal justice use the statistics for varied research
and planning purposes.
Prevention designed for everyone in the eligible population, both the general public
and all members of specific eligible groups. Also, activities targeted to the general
public or a whole population group that has not been identified on the basis of
The extent to which a measure of a particular construct/concept actually measures
what it purports to measure. For example, is "years of schooling" a valid measure
of education? (Achieving Outcomes, 12/01).
An act carried out with the intention or perceived intention of causing physical
pain or injury to another person.
is composed of four offenses: murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape,
robbery, and aggravated assault. According to the Uniform Crime Reporting Program's
definition, violent crimes involve force or threat of force.
A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East,
or North Africa.
Preliminary information indicates substantial gains resulting from prevention efforts
in the workplace. For example, in an insurance-related industry, addition of substance
abuse prevention materials to health promotion in the workplace improved attitudes
and behavior related to substance use. Also, workers who participated in SA interventions
were more likely to access healthcare for SA problems. Employee injury rates can
be reduced when substance abuse prevention initiatives are introduced.
None available at this time
Children under age 18 who are not otherwise counted under one of the school grade
categories. Examples are youth in recreation programs (camps, summer programs),
youth in employment programs and youth in clubs or recreation centers.
None available at this time